Paper of the Month - August

 In the future it may be more economical to generate power through thermophotovoltaic systems which convert thermal energy into electricity.

In the future it may be more economical to generate power through thermophotovoltaic systems which convert thermal energy into electricity.

Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) is the conversion of thermal radiation released by a thermal emitter into electricity by means of a photovoltaic cell.

Power generation with a TPV system can be envisaged for almost any process and an absence of moving parts has the advantage of low maintenance costs. Thermal emission scales with temperature to a power of 4, meaning temperature above 1000 °C is required to generate significant power in such systems.

However, the wide spectral width of thermal radiation limits the efficiency of TPV conversion as only part of the spectrum is accepted by the photovoltaic cell. A tight control over the thermal radiation spectrum is required to prevent energy dissipating into the environment. The emitter is structured in such a way as to emit thermal radiation outside the required spectral range.

Current methods use structural resonances to control thermal emission. These require complex lithography and possess intrinsic angle dependent spectral variations. 

August’s Paper of the Month by Dyachenko et al., attempts to solve the TPV efficiency problem by designing and using a unique refractory metamaterial as an emitter instead of the traditional structural resonances. This metamaterial is engineered to prevent emission of long wavelength photons through a specifically engineered transition from dielectric to metallic response.

Metamaterials are traditionally made of layers of repeating composite material, designed to have a particular property which is not found naturally. The group designed a new metamaterial made of layers of tungsten and a dielectric material to create a refractory material with unique high temperature stability and selective thermal emission.

Dyachenko et al., conducted several verification experiments to test whether their unique metamaterial matched up to the theoretical expectations. Results indicated a strong absorptivity at short wavelengths and suppression of absorptivity at longer wavelengths, an important parameter for emitters in TPV systems. As the thermal emissivity and absorptivity are equal in reciprocal systems, then the same selective properties are expected for thermal emission. It was also shown that the obtained properties are almost angle independent.

By placing the metamaterial under cycles of extreme thermal stress, they were able to test the thermal stability of the material. The metamaterial was subjected to high temperature annealing experiments in the Linkam TS1500V stage. They chose to use the TS1500 as it allowed measurement of in-situ reflection and emission spectra of the samples using an FTIR spectrometer with a microscope at extreme temperatures up to 1500°C and under vacuum conditions.

The results were encouraging with optical characteristics being stable up to 1000°C supporting its thermal stability for TPV systems. 

The refractory metamaterial does not need lithography and can be deposited by alternating magnetron sputtering. The highlight of the work is the support for the thermal stability and spectral properties of the unique metamaterial for TPV systems. 

Dyachenko, P. N. et al. Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions. Nat. Commun. 7:11809 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11809 (2016).

Paper of the Month - July

 Cryopreservation is widely used to store cells for transplantation.

Cryopreservation is widely used to store cells for transplantation.

The last century has seen remarkable advancement in theoretical and practical therapeutics. One such development is cell cryo-preservation: the process of freezing cells and preserving them for future transfusions. Current methods involve the introduction of cryo-protectants, such as DMSO and glycerol, and freezing to levels below which biochemical reactions cannot occur. 

Cryo-preserved cells are vulnerable to Ice Recrystallisation (IR). This is the formation of large ice crystals at the expense of smaller crystals and occurs during repeated freezing and thawing events. These crystals can rupture cell membranes and thus post-thaw cell numbers are often much lower than the number frozen.  IR is a major factor in causing primary graft failure in transplantation patients. 

Red blood cell transfusions are life changing procedures to those who have suffered from significant blood loss or for those suffering from illnesses such as leukaemia. In order to freeze samples of red blood cells (RBCs), the cells undergo an extensive glycerisation process – 40% V/V. However prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to less than 1% v/v to prevent haemolysis, but de-glycerisation is a lengthy process which prevents this method of being used in emergency situations. 

Current cryo-protectants do not control or inhibit IR, thus it is necessary to find new cryo-protectants that can control IR to improve the success of the cryo-preservation process.  

July’s Paper of the Month by Briard et al., discovered a novel class of carbohydrate derivatives with ice recrystallisation inhibiting properties that retain potency at lower glycerol percentages. The new ice recrystallisation inhibitors (IRIs) are of low molecular weight making them ideal additives to cellular systems. Briard et al., tested the ability of these molecules to reduce ice recrystallisation and ultimately improve the survival rate of cryo-preserved cells.

 Red blood cells typically undergo a glycerisation process followed by a lengthy de-glycerisation process prior to transfusion.

Red blood cells typically undergo a glycerisation process followed by a lengthy de-glycerisation process prior to transfusion.

The group used human red blood cells (RBCs) to test the properties of the IRIs as experimental assay procedures have long since been established for RBCs. One aspect of the experiments treated the RBCs to 15% glycerol, compared to the 40% clinical standard, in an attempt to reduce the post thaw processing time. 

They recreated typical cryo-cell conditions to get a real estimate of the effect of IR inhibitors on frozen cell samples. They used the Linkam FDCS196 to freeze the RBC samples and image the effect of the IRIs on ice crystal sizes. The inhibitor’s presence was found to reduce mean ice crystal size, resulting in a higher rate of cell integrity. 

The transportation of cells between storage and medical facilities results in frozen samples being exposed to ambient temperatures repeatedly. Such phenomena are known as transient warming events (TWEs) and are understood to debilitate cell viability. The cyclic exposure to ambient temperatures followed by freezing temperatures can increase the size of ice crystals explaining the damage to the cells. 

The group tested the effect of IRIs on crystal size during TWEs. In the presence of the inhibitors, mean ice crystal size was not found to increase during TWEs, however in the absence of the IRIs the crystal size increased. The increasing size of ice crystals play a major role in the reduction of post thaw viability.

Professor Ben, of the research group, discusses the motivation behind his work and the role of the FDCS196

“The Linkam cryostage is an essential piece of equipment to perform the studies we described.  Our motivation to design these compounds is twofold.  Firstly we have always been interested in understanding the nature of the cryo-injury that cells/tissues sustain upon freezing and secondly we use this information to design new and greatly improved cryo-protectants that will enable the many novel cellular and regenerative therapies that are currently being developed.  The current problem is that there is no shelf life to these cellular products as they cannot be cryo-preserved efficiently.”

These studies found aryl-glycosides to be the most potent of their IRIs. Their experiments confirmed the introduction of IRIs to the 15% glycerol samples significantly increased post-thaw viability to approximately 90% for aryl-glycosides. Cryo-microscopy confirmed the ability of the inhibitors to reduce mean ice crystal size and IR during TWEs, which in turn increased post thaw viability. Their work provides promising results by addressing issues with current cryo-protectants and with further study, may pave a way for improved cellular cryo-preservation in the future. 

By Tabassum Mujtaba

Briard, J. G. et al. (2016). Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing. Sci. Rep. 6, 23619


X-Raying the Bio-Imaging Field

 Exhibitors preparing for the opening of the Bio-XFEL workshop (image courtesy of the Science and Technology Facilities Council).

Exhibitors preparing for the opening of the Bio-XFEL workshop (image courtesy of the Science and Technology Facilities Council).

The Linkam team are always looking for engaging and dynamic shows to showcase our wide range of stages. Last month we visited the Diamond Light UK Bio-XFEL Single Particle Imaging Workshop in Didcot, the home of the UK’s largest synchrotron. 

X-ray Free Electron Lasers are electrons which have been accelerated close to the speed of light. The frequency of these waves lies within the range of x-rays, 3×10 16 Hz to 3×10 19 Hz. This beam of tiny particles releases packets of energy, and this radiation has many different practical applications.

The energy released by these waves is powerful enough to image bio-molecules, this in turn eliminates the need of crystallisation methods to determine 3D macromolecular structures.

Speakers from all over the globe came to deliver cutting-edge talks in biological imaging. An interesting range of talks were delivered, such as Changyong Song’s “XFEL single-shot imaging of specimens on fixed targets” and Helen Saibil’s “Single particle cryo-EM of macromolecular machines”. 

We would like to thank the organisers for holding such an insightful show and we look forward to seeing you all soon at the next Bio-imaging event. 

The Science of Food

 Food research has an essential role in ensuring the quality of the food we eat. 

Food research has an essential role in ensuring the quality of the food we eat. 

What gives chocolate its rich creamy texture? How can we keep the creaminess while reducing the fat content? For almost a century Leatherhead Food Research (LFR, has been analysing and answering such questions by looking at the intricate microstructures of food. By doing so, Leatherhead has supported and contributed hugely to the progression of the food and beverage industry. 

We recently paid a visit to their facility in Leatherhead, Surrey. Kathy Groves, Head of Science & Microscopy, has been using the Linkam Optical Shearing System – CSS450 – to analyse the microstructures of various foods. 

One of the more important sectors they focus on is research into helping the food and beverage industry develop healthier products. With a quarter of people in England classified as obese, there is a clear need to replace high calorie foods with lower calorie versions. But finding healthy replacements for flavoursome salt, fats and sugars is a challenge. For the public to embrace these changes, the products must have similar taste, texture and physical properties as their less healthy predecessors.

With its shearing function and temperature control, the CSS450 provides the perfect sample characterisation chamber to analyse the microstructure of new formulations. The imaging option of the system allows changes in sample structure to be visualised and comparative differences to be analysed. This gives key information on how food and drink behave when sheared, such as happens in the mouth.

Linkam products have great potential for use in food research. We demonstrated some of our other stages to Leatherhead, including the humidity system – the RH95, which can alter the relative humidity and temperature around samples, making it a great system for shelf life testing. The stages created much interest, which reinforced our belief in the need for our products within this market. 

 Smiles all round as Ricky Patel demonstrates the humidity system at Leatherhead Food Research.

Smiles all round as Ricky Patel demonstrates the humidity system at Leatherhead Food Research.

We would like to thank Kathy Groves and Leatherhead Food Research for inviting us to their laboratory and providing us with essential insight into the food research market. 

By Tabassum Mujtaba 


Paper of the Month - June

 The synergistic relationship between actin and microtubules plays a crucial role in neuronal maturation.  

The synergistic relationship between actin and microtubules plays a crucial role in neuronal maturation.  

Just like the human body, cells require a skeleton to guide growth, support and movement. This essential ‘cytoskeleton’ is comprised of a particular set of proteins present in all cellular organisms: humans, plants, animals and even bacteria. 

June’s Paper of the Month by Elie et al. focused on the role of a neuronal protein, Tau, and its link to two major cytoskeletal proteins: actin and microtubules. 

These cytoskeletal filaments have a well-established dynamic and synergistic relationship in terms of cellular growth, division and movement. However the molecular basis governing this synergy remains poorly understood, although several proteins have been identified as potential ‘linkers’ between actin and microtubules. As they play a crucial role in cellular function, determining the mechanics of their relationship is fundamental in understanding cellular irregularities and pathologies.

Tau is a neuronal protein known to promote the polymerisation of microtubules along the body of nerve cells and regulate the actin cytoskeleton. As such, it becomes an excellent candidate for further experimentation as a co-organisational protein of actin and microtubules. Elie et al. investigated Tau’s ability to simultaneously organise both proteins. 

Through live Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, they found tau induced a bundling effect on actin. Co-sedimentation assays of tau with both cytoskeletal proteins, illustrated tau as a cross-linker between actin and microtubules. Through these cross-links, macro-molecular structures were able to form. 

Microtubule and actin polymerisation is temperature-dependent thus these parameters were strictly controlled. They used the Linkam MC60 warm stage controller to control the temperature parameters for their live TIRF microscopy experiment.

 The TIRF microscopy system set up, with the Linkam MC60 controller on the right.  

The TIRF microscopy system set up, with the Linkam MC60 controller on the right.  

Fluorescently labelling proteins is a popular way of visualising protein localisation and interactions. Co-ordination experiments were conducted by fluorescently labelling actin and microtubules. They visualised their concomitant polymerisation and organisation in the presence of fascin – an actin bundling protein – and tau. In presence of fascin they found only actin bundled together with no effect on microtubules or microtubule-actin co-ordination. However in the presence of tau, growing microtubules and actin filaments were found to co-align with each other, confirming tau as a cross-linking protein of these two major cytoskeletal elements. 

 Fluorescent labelling of actin and microtubules with fascin on the left and tau on the right. 

Fluorescent labelling of actin and microtubules with fascin on the left and tau on the right. 

Recent studies have highlighted tau protein presence in junctions between neurons. Elie et al., propose that tau may participate in the microtubule/actin coordination that controls synapse formation and function. Uncovering some of the mystery around cytoskeletal organisation will have important medical repercussions. Abnormal tau protein is linked with Alzheimer’s, a neurodegenerative disease. Advancements in understanding such intricate protein relationships may aid in further unearthing the pathways which lead to cytoskeletal pathologies.

Read more:

Linkams interview with Isbelle Arnal.

Elie, A. et al. (2015). Tau co-organizes dynamic microtubule and actin networks. Sci. Rep. 5, 09964

By Tabassum Mujtaba

Investing in Tomorrow

 Production’s newest gizmo, the HAAS Automation VF-4SS (image courtesy of Haas Automation).

Production’s newest gizmo, the HAAS Automation VF-4SS (image courtesy of Haas Automation).

At Linkam each of our stages are designed and built in-house by our experienced engineers. Machining is a lengthy process and production time is limited by the capabilities of the equipment. Investing in new machinery is just one way in which Linkam endeavours to improve business practice and overall customer satisfaction.  

Our newest gadget is the HAAS Automation VF-4SS which will be used right in the heart of production.  The ingeniously designed side-mount tool changer holds 40 different tools, providing an “all-in-one” feature for stage production. The internal capacity of the machine now allows some of our bigger stages to be made in one production cycle, without the need for other machinery. 

Dan Kirk, our production manager, reports on the new tool: “With the new VF-4SS, we’re expecting significantly reduced production times. It can hold more tools, house bigger stages and it incorporates the programmes we used previously. We’re looking forward to much more efficient and faster production runs.”

By Tabassum Mujtaba


Linkam’s High Temperature Stage

 The all new HS1500, featuring a rotatable window.

The all new HS1500, featuring a rotatable window.

Linkam high temperature stages are used in a wide variety of applications including geology, metallurgy, ceramics and high temperature polymers. When some samples are heated to high temperatures, they can release volatile components which condense on the window, obscuring the optical path. To overcome this, Linkam engineers have developed a simple but extremely effective solution. The new HS1500 stage incorporates a large window that can be rotated to move a clear area into the optical path.

Operating up to 1500 °C, the unit features a 55 mm rotatable quartz window which allows the user to turn the window to a new, clear, area during the experiment if they observe volatile emissions settling onto the viewing window. This new functionality is especially useful in observing how materials such as ceramics, metallic alloys, polymers and many more react to ultra-high temperatures, without compromising the image quality.

The HS1500 stage features a ceramic heating cup which when used in conjunction with the ceramic cover creates a micro oven around the sample and heats at an incredible rate of up to 200 °C/min. The stage body has precision quick-release gas valves which can be used to purge the sample chamber with an inert gas to reduce any oxidation effects on the sample itself.

Sales and Marketing Manager, Dr Duncan Stacey, says of this launch: “At Linkam, we are continually talking to our customers, listening to their ideas and suggestions. The HS1500 is a great example of how we listened to an issue affecting some of our customers and developed a simple but effective solution.”

To learn more about Linkam and our approach to the development of temperature stages to address multiple applications challenges, please visit our website

Preserving Our Future

 Talking to new customers at the Association of Biomedical Andrologists' recent meeting in Cardiff. 

Talking to new customers at the Association of Biomedical Andrologists' recent meeting in Cardiff. 

Andrology is a profoundly important and sensitive area of health research. Many different factors can lead to a decrease in male fertility, for example, cancer treatments, illnesses, and age, so studying and storing healthy sperm samples from such males becomes an important measure in ensuring their potential to father children in the future. 

The Association of Biomedical Andrologists (ABA) is a group dedicated to aiding andrologists in male health research. We recently attended the 11th ABA annual general meeting in Cardiff from the 18th to 19th May, where many topics such as semen analysis and preservation were explored. 

The event was held in The Angel Hotel, which is a stone’s throw away from Cardiff Castle. The castle is one of the biggest heritage attractions in Wales and boasts a rich history dating back almost 2000 years, featuring Romans, Normans and Victorians. Beautifully sculpted stone animals designed by William Burges line the outside walls of the castle. It is a stunning site with the ancient architecture still withstanding the forces of time.

 One of the many stone animals guarding the walls of Cardiff Castle

One of the many stone animals guarding the walls of Cardiff Castle

We showcased our upright and inverted WS37 warm stage systems, both designed with andrology in mind. The systems proved very popular among the attendees, many of whom commented on the practicality of the features. The extremely accurate temperature control, data logging and the liquid crystal validation slide make the WS37 warm stages the ideal solution to provide repeatable conditions for Sperm analysis – a necessary feature for the andrology community.

In the evening, a lovely Welsh-themed conference dinner was held for the attendees, serving potato and leek soup, Welsh roast lamb and Barabrith honey cheesecake – which tasted surprisingly like Christmas pudding!

The final day saw some much anticipated events such as ‘Question Time’, the annual general meeting and the andrology debate: ‘Is the routine testing of antisperm antibodies clinically useful in the management of the sub-fertile male?’

It proved to be another exciting and successful trip for Linkam. We would like to thank the ABA for holding a superb event and thank you to all those who came over for a chat. We hope to see you all again next year.

By Tabassum Mujtaba

Paper of the Month - May

 In the future he might be made of a sustainable biopolymer. 

In the future he might be made of a sustainable biopolymer. 

May’s ‘Paper of the Month’ is a collaboration between a number of different laboratories and Institutes: the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Nanyang Technological University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering.

Their paper ‘Multi-scale thermal stability of a hard thermoplastic protein-based material’ determined the thermal properties of a potentially novel and sustainable biopolymer to replace the unsustainable petrochemical polymers we rely so heavily on today. 

Since the industrial revolution, petrochemicals have been used extensively: in aromatics, plastic production, and fuel. Not only are they environmentally damaging but reserves of petrochemicals are running out. They take millions of years to form, and substantial use of them over the last two centuries means future generations will have to go without. 

Yet their chemistry and structure are excellent for creating thermoplastics. When heated, weak forces of attraction between polymer chains – intermolecular forces – break, allowing the chains to move past each other and the plastic to be reshaped. When the plastic cools, these bonds reform and the new shape is held. 

In contrast, thermosetting plastics have a strong cross linked network of bonds, which allows them to retain their shape when heat is applied, although extreme temperatures will cause both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics to permanently decompose. Thermosetting plastics have many useful applications but thermoplastics’ wide commercial use comes from their ability to be reheated and reshaped a number of times.

 A simplistic representation of the effect of heat on bond interactions (red) between polymer chains (black) of thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics.

A simplistic representation of the effect of heat on bond interactions (red) between polymer chains (black) of thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics.

The search is on to find alternatives to petrochemical based polymers, but it is challenging because not many biopolymers have the chemical properties required to replace thermoplastics. Even when such properties are induced through chemical processing, the biopolymers often lose the integrity of their physical nature. However, one exception may be Sucker Ring Teeth (SRT), made of a protein called Suckerin, which is found in the tentacles of squid and cuttlefish. 

The research group first molecularly characterised the macromolecule to find it displayed many of the chemical properties true to thermoplastics. Hydrogen bonds – a type of intermolecular force – are found between SRT’s β-sheets and, just like thermoplastics, when heated these bonds break and SRT can be reshaped. 

Using X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and nano-mechanical techniques, the group determined its molecular mechanical and thermal properties. Using the Linkam THMS600 stage, which can control the temperature of the sample from -196°C to 600°C with an accuracy of 0.01°C, they precisely varied the temperature to test the thermal properties of SRT. 

Thermal extrusion experiments were conducted to test the thermoplastic nature of the polymers. With the addition of water and the plasticiser glycerol, it could be heated and cooled into various stable forms, reprocessed a number of times and proved successful in additive manufacturing. They determined SRT to be crystalline polymers of β-sheets with amorphous regions, which is structurally stable until 220°C. The properties of the treated SRT polymer are highly promising for synthetic commercial production. 

By determining the thermal and molecular properties of this biopolymer, the group has established a potential sustainable alternative to thermoplastics. With the results showing potential, the future range of applications for SRT may extend to 3D printing, synthetics and biomedical devices.

By Tabassum Mujtaba

Latza, V., Guerette, PA., Ding, D., Amini, S., Kumar, A., Schmidt, I., Keating, S., Oxman, N., Weaver, JC., Fratzl, P., Miserez, A., Masic, A. (2015). Multi-scale thermal stability of a hard thermoplastic protein-based material. Nature Communications. 6: 8313


Material Matters

 The Porte de Paris in Lille was erected in the 17th Century to honour Louis XIV's capture of the city

The Porte de Paris in Lille was erected in the 17th Century to honour Louis XIV's capture of the city

The Linkam team recently visited northern France for the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) spring meeting which was held at the Lille Grand Palais from the 3rd to 5th May. This was one of our bigger conferences of the year, with over 80 international exhibitors and an average of 2500 attendees each year.

We presented a range of products including the Imaging Station, TST350, RH95 and LTS420E-PB4. The RH95 again proved to be popular, this time within the materials field, and the LTS420E-PB4 also generated a great deal of excitement.

2D materials proved to be a favoured topic with many talks centred on graphene commercialisation and applications as they provide a great set of electrical and conductive properties due to their unique single atomic layer structure. With scientists focusing on unravelling more about their scientific nature, the market for such products is likely to expand, and Linkam’s probe stages are ideally suited to analysing electrical measurements across these materials.

It was a successful trip for Linkam as it highlighted the demand for our products across a variety of different material fields, as well as stimulating ideas for the future. It also gave us the opportunity to meet plenty of new faces and catch up with some old friends. 

We would like to thank the E-MRS, for hosting such a successful event, and everyone who came over to our booth - we look forward to seeing you all again at the next materials conference.

By Tabassum Mujtaba


Analysing the Next Generation

Next week, Caroline Feltham and I will be attending the 2016 Association of Biomedical Andrologists (ABA) 11th annual general meeting. The event will be held at The Angel Hotel in Cardiff from the 18th to 19th May and will explore a range of topics around fertility preservation including the sperm banking process, improving patient experience and ethical dilemmas. 

Andrology remains a globally important area with many countries facing a decrease in fertility rates. Linkam’s WS37 warm stage and controller is a new and innovative system designed specifically with andrology in mind, thanks to its high temperature sensitivity, data logging and calibration, accuracy and ease of use.

If you would like to know more about our WS37 warm stage and what it can do for your research, come and see us at the ABA 11th annual general meeting next week.

By Tabassum Mujtaba


Paper of the Month – April

  Upon formation, rock minerals trap samples of fluid and atmosphere that can be locked away for billions of years

Upon formation, rock minerals trap samples of fluid and atmosphere that can be locked away for billions of years

April’s ‘Paper of the Month’ comes from the Institute of Light and Matter (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)), where the project was conceived by Professor Frédéric Caupin.

Climate change is a controversial subject in both the scientific and political communities, but with the world’s fauna and flora at risk it is one which needs addressing. Modelling future climatic conditions relies heavily on historical records, but this data does not date back far enough as the technology was only developed in the last century. To predict a more accurate climatic future, a technique known as paleothermometry is becoming ever more widely used. Professor Caupin’s group focused on identifying issues in current methods of extracting paleothermometry data and constructed a novel method which bypasses current practical and theoretical problems. 

Rock minerals almost always contain Fluid Inclusions (FIs). These inclusions contain snippets of atmospheric and fluid data trapped at the time of the rock’s formation and thus have been used in the past as proxies to estimate the variability of the Earth’s surface temperature as well as determining natural processes – such as fluid distribution in the earth’s mantle. 
These fluid inclusions – upon cooling – can nucleate bubbles within the rock and it is these bubbles that can be studied to determine the ambient temperature at the time the fluid was trapped. 

However this method of determining historical ambient temperature from rock minerals has limitations – as highlighted by Professor Caupin – for two reasons. Firstly, there is bias in the current methodology and, secondly, the method requires the nucleation of a bubble, which does not always occur within the rock sample.

In this study, Professor Caupin’s group created a new approach which bypasses the need for a nucleation bubble and other limitations. Their method follows the interaction between laser light and fluid droplets – Raman spectroscopy and Brillouin microscopy – from which paleothermometry data can be drawn. They used FIs in quartz crystals, because of the relative ease in comparison between these results, and that of the more standard bubble based method – a technique where paleothermometry data is taken from the nucleation bubble. Their experimental findings show both methods to closely agree with each other and, as such, proves the validity of their new method. 

The group used the Linkam THMS600 to allow application of the wide thermal cycles with the precise temperature control they required for their work whilst also allowing them to observe the spectroscopic measurements. 

The group now aim to use this method as a new approach to find paleothermometry data in more paleoclimatic relevant samples, such as speleothems and evaporites. This approach may provide a novel route to understanding the earth’s climatic history. 


Linkam's Interview with Professor Frédéric Caupin.

El Mekki-Azouzi, M. Tripathi, C.S.P. Pallares, G. Gardien, V. and Caupin, F. (2015).  Brillouin Spectroscopy of Fluid Inclusions Proposed As A Paleothermometer For Subsurface Rocks. Scientific Reports 5, 13168.

By Tabassum Mujtaba 

Linkam in Lille

Our sales and marketing team will be travelling to Lille for the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) spring meeting from the 3rd-5th May at the Grand Palais in Lille, France. 

Come along and talk to us about your sample characterisation needs. We will have a range of our products on show, including our TST350 Tensile stage, LTS420E-PB4 Electrical stage, RH95 Humidity generator and our Imaging Station

There will be a number of exhibitors present covering a range of different topics, such as material processing, metrology and spectroscopy technologies to name a few. During the conference, there will be a variety of workshops, symposia and poster sessions. 

With an average of 2500 attendees every year, we’re excited to meet plenty of fresh new faces. If you would like to know more about our various sample characterisation systems, come and talk to us on booth 15. 

See you there.

By Tabassum Mujtaba

Talking business in Taipei

    Taipei 101 dominates the skyline


Taipei 101 dominates the skyline

Linkam’s, Senior Research & Development Engineer, Dr Michael Schwertner, recently travelled to the dynamic city of Taipei to present a paper at the ‘Focus on Microscopy’ (FOM) conference (20th- 23rd March). Over 500 people from more than 30 countries attended the event. 

The conference contained a mixture of workshops, talks and poster sessions covering all aspects of light microscopy and image processing. Michael’s paper, ‘Cryo-Fluorescence Mapping for Correlative Microscopy of Biological Samples’, focussed on correlative microscopy and cryo-fluorescence imaging. 

Cryo-correlative electron microscopy (cryo-CLEM) aims to combine the ultra-high resolution of electron microscopy, providing structural information, with the chemical sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy to create a more complete image of intra cellular processes. Michael presented his paper which discussed both the benefits and challenges of cryo-microscopy and new workflow options when using cryo-CLEM techniques with the Linkam CMS196

Michael also attended many other talks given by scientific world leaders, including the Nobel Prize winner, Dr. Eric Betzig, whose work focussed on super-resolution techniques. One of Michael’s favourite talks of the conference came from Shahar Alon from MIT. His talk ‘Expansion Microscopy & Expansion Sequencing’ looked at a novel approach of improving microscopy – targeting the expansion of samples to increase the power of microscopy techniques, rather than aiming to improve the microscope resolution power itself. 

The conference dinner was held on the 86th floor in Taipei 101, which boasts fastest elevator in the world and was until 2009 the world’s tallest building. The skyscraper has 101 floors and features a unique 660 ton counter balancing weight to keep it safe in the event of an earthquake. Taiwan has a fantastic variety of Asian and fusion foods with which the delegates were spoilt at the conference.

    Cryo-Sashimi - food of the future


Cryo-Sashimi - food of the future

We would like to thank FOM for another great conference and the opportunity to present a talk, and we hope to see you again at the next conference in Bordeaux, France.

By Tabassum Mujtaba

An Instrumental Role in Pharmaceuticals

  A view of the SECC in Glasgow where the four day event was held

A view of the SECC in Glasgow where the four day event was held

Myself, Duncan Stacey and Ricky Patel recently visited Glasgow for the international ResearchPharm exhibition. The event was held at the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre (SECC) from 4th - 7th April and was organised to coincide with the tenth anniversary of the PBP (Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology) World Meeting. It was the first time Linkam has attended and the focus was on a variety of areas including laboratory equipment, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), excipients and analytical instruments.

On the Linkam stand we displayed our differential scanning calorimeter DSC600, freezing drying system FDCS196 and our humidity controller RH95. The instruments proved popular, especially the RH95 which created such a buzz that we ran out of enquiry forms on the third day.

An area which caused much excitement among the pharmaceutical community was 3D printing.  One talk in particular, “Printing APIs”, focused on additive manufacturing as a mechanism to print medication directly at the doctors’ surgery, or even at home. Work is already well under way into researching and testing the polymers required for such a feat. 

With this area expanding, Linkam’s THMS600 and DSC600 will be extremely useful to measure and visualise the thermal properties of these additive materials such as glass transitions and melting temperatures.

  Heading into the Hunterian Museum for the ResearchPharm conference dinner

Heading into the Hunterian Museum for the ResearchPharm conference dinner

On the Wednesday evening we were invited to the conference dinner, which was held in Glasgow’s Hunterian Museum.  As well as live Scottish music, Ricky Patel and I explored the wide variety of collections on display, ranging from Triassic fossil records to Roman architecture.

Overall, the event was a productive one and it highlighted the demand for our products in this market. We hope to see many of you again at another pharmaceutical conference.  

By Tabassum Mujtaba

Liquid Crystals on full display in Auld Reekie

  The conference was held a stone throw’s away from Arthur’s seat

The conference was held a stone throw’s away from Arthur’s seat

We recently attended the ‘Joint Conference of the British & German Liquid Crystal Societies’, which took place last week, 21st-23rd March 2016. The event was held in Pollock’s Halls Campus of Edinburgh University, a short 20 minute walk from the beautiful Arthur’s seat.

Over 120 people came to visit the event, which we were pleased to sponsor, and exhibited at. Ricky Patel, from our sales team attended and spoke to some of our existing customers as well as a few fresh faces about some of Linkam’s great products and the role they play in liquid crystal science.

  A busy poster session where some of the scientists had a chance to have a chat about the things they’re working on

A busy poster session where some of the scientists had a chance to have a chat about the things they’re working on

There were a number of talks over the two days, covering the mechanics of liquid crystals in various scientific environments. Exciting, cutting edge talks ranged from more biological based ones such as Ben Sturgeon’s ‘The Universe in a Bacterial Colony: Growing E.coli as Active Nematics’ to more traditional liquid crystal talks such as ‘Liquid Crystal Technologies Towards Realising a Field Sequence Colour (FSC) display’ delivered by Simon Siemianowski. 

The conference was attended by a variety of universities, research groups and companies throughout Europe and the US. We would like to say thanks to all those who came over to our stand and also to Dr Philip Hands of the University of Edinburgh for organising the event. 

By Tabassum Mujtaba

Paper of the Month — March

    Atomic Force Microscopy image of black phosphorous. (Image from Su & Zhang, 2015).


Atomic Force Microscopy image of black phosphorous. (Image from Su & Zhang, 2015).

March’s ‘Paper of the Month’ comes from Dr Yong Zhang and Dr Liqin Su at the University of North Carolina Charlotte (UNCC).

They have used the Linkam high temperature TS1500 stage to conduct research on the properties of emerging 2D materials. 2D materials – a category which includes the widely publicised graphene – have been studied extensively in recent years, due to their potential for application in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices.

Graphene, a layered form of carbon atoms, is extremely thin and has many remarkable properties: as well as being incredibly strong and flexible, graphene is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Graphene’s downfall however is its inability to shut off conductivity completely.

As a result, scientists have been seeking alternative 2D materials with large band gaps, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), tungsten disulphide (WS2), copper zinc tin selenide (CZT Se), and black phosphorous.

Black phosphorous is a particularly promising material due to its layer-dependant band gap, meaning it can function as a semi-conductor – essentially, it can be switched on and off. Its application in new nanotechnologies could give rise to a range of high performance microprocessors, transistors, lasers, solar cells and more.

In their paper “Temperature coefficients of phonon frequencies and thermal conductivity in black phosphorous layers” (Applied Physics Letters, 2015), Zhang and Su investigate the vibrational properties and electron-phonon interactions of black phosphorous, as well as how epitaxial or supporting substrates can impact the properties of a 2D material which is often presumed to have weak bonding with the substrate.

It is essential to understand these properties if black phosphorous is going to be successfully utilised in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

This work further demonstrates that high temperature Raman spectroscopy is an efficient technique for probing the 2D film/substrate interaction for a broad range of 2D materials, including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, as reported in another paper of Zhang’s group “Effects of substrate type and material-substrate bonding on high-temperature behaviour of monolayer WS2” (Nano Research, 2015).

The Linkam TS1500 stage allows them to investigate a thermal activation process that requires high temperatures, as well as the thermal stability under different conditions. 

Su, L. & Zhang, Y. (2015). Temperature Coefficients of Phonon Frequencies & Thermal Conductivity in Thin Black Phosphorous Layers. Applied Physics Letters 107(7)

Paper of the Month — February

    Snakebite envenomings constitute a highly relevant health problem in areas of Asia, Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. 


Snakebite envenomings constitute a highly relevant health problem in areas of Asia, Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. 

It is notoriously difficult to maintain a reliable cold chain for goods travelling to, or being stored in, rural communities in developing countries. This has serious implications for the distribution of medicines, vaccines, testing reagents and other substances, often with significant implications for healthcare.

One such substance are antivenoms. Whilst not something the Western world is greatly attuned to, snakebite envenomings are a highly relevant public health problem in areas of Asia, Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The accepted treatment for snakebite envenomings is the parenteral administration of animal-derived liquid formulation antivenoms.

February’s ‘Paper of the Month’ from Herrera et al. uses the FDCS196 freeze-drying stage to investigate the viability of freeze-drying snake antivenoms. Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of many pharmaceutical proteins, and eliminate the need for a continual temperature control. Proteins are stabilised through formulation with sugars and polyols, but until now the use of these compounds in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented.

In this paper, whole immunoglobulin G antivenom from equine plasma was formulated with varying concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol, and stored for 6 months at 40°C.

The authors said, “The thermal characterization of anti-venoms using freeze-drying microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry is crucial for the development of the freeze-drying process. The Linkam Instrumentation allowed us to know the collapse temperature of different formulations of snake antivenoms and determine which of them were suitable for freeze-drying in term of stability, cost and productivity”.

 Herrera et al. figure 1,  freeze-drying of antivenoms

Herrera et al. figure 1,  freeze-drying of antivenoms

The formulations were tested for stability and the neutralisation of the lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. All formulations except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol exhibited the same potency, and the 5% sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability.

The results obtained provide valuable information for the production of more stable freeze-dried antivenoms in developing countries, where an adequate cold chain cannot be guaranteed. This could dramatically increase their availability in the areas they are most needed.

Herrera, M., Tattitini Jr, V., Pitombo, RNM., Gutierrez, JM., Borgognoni, C., Vega-Baudrit, J., Solera, F., Cerda, F., Cerda, M., Segura, A., Villalta, M., Vargas, M. and Leon, G. (2014). Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: Comparison of their stability in an accelerated test. Toxicon 90, pp56-63.

By Frances Coles


Open Access Papers added

Our new website is in continual development and for our latest addition we have taken advantage of the growing trend in publishing open access research.

We are pleased to announce you can now find links to some great new papers featuring Linkam stages, directly from our website — just look for the application notes section for the product of your choice.

For example, the THMS600 now has a range of papers from over the last year, including some brand new research on phosphorene, a hugely interesting 2D material due to its unique properties such as layer-dependent direct bandgap energy, which could lead to the development of many novel electronic and optoelectronic devices.

The TST350 tensile stage is featured in a particularly interesting new paper entitled 'Intrinsic mechanical behaviour of femoral cortical bone in young, osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated individuals in low and high energy fracture conditions.'

New papers can also be found for the HFS600E-PB4, FDCS196, THMSG600, FTIR600, TS1500, TST350 and the LTS420, not forgetting our existing application notes on these and the CMS196M, BCS196, GS350, MDSG600, TS1000EL, THMSEL600, TS1400XY, and CCR1000.

We’ve got papers for a wide range of applications so we’re sure you will find something that suits your needs, happy browsing.

Congratulations to Microvision Instruments

    O. Huin CIO, JP Devez and G Vaillant with the Distributor of the Year award 


O. Huin CIO, JP Devez and G Vaillant with the Distributor of the Year award 

Linkam have been working with French distributor Microvison Instruments for over twenty years. We can now confirm Microvision had the highest growth in sales of our distributors for 2015, and as such are delighted to announce that they were the recipient of the first ever annual “Distributor of the Year” award.

We would like to thank Gilles Vaillant and the sales team for their great efforts representing and promoting Linkam products in France and related territories.  

We hope Microvison will be the first of many worthy winners.