“Application of the Linkam TS1400XY heating stage to MI studies” published in the Central European Journal of Geosciences by the team at Virginia Tech

Melt inclusions (MI) trapped in igneous phenocrysts provide one of the best tools available for characterizing magmatic processes. For example some MI experience post-entrapment modifications and to return the MI to its original state laboratory heating may be required. This is followed by rapid quenching to produce a homogeneous glass phase so that microanalysis can be undertaken.

In their paper “Application of the Linkam TS1400XY heating stage to MI studies” published in the Central European Journal of Geosciences, the team at Virgiania Tech including Esposito.R , Klebesz.R, Bartoli.O, Klyukin.Y.I, Moncada.D. & Doherty.A.L, and Bodnar.R.J. describe a series of heating experiments that have been performed on crystallized MI using the Linkam TS1400 heating stage. The TS1400 stage has a ceramic heater that completely encases the sample in a uniform temperature controlled environment enabling high accuracy control up to 1400°C within a gas sealed chamber. A special manipulator enables rapid transfer from the heater to a colder platform for ultra fast cooling rates of up to 240°C per second.

The Linkam TS1400 StageThese tests demonstrate the applicability of the Linkam TS1400 stage to heat and quench the MI to produce homogeneous glasses that can be analyzed with various techniques such as Electron Microprobe (EMP), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Laser ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA ICP-MS), Raman spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy.

Linkam would like to say a big thank you to Robert Bodnar and his team for all their help over this year.

by Caroline Feltham

ECROFI XXI - Fluid Inclusions and Hotstages in Leoben

 We like going to smaller conferences that focus on a specific area of research for a few reasons. Everybody seems to know each other and they are all pretty enthusiastic about their work and looking forward to tell everyone else about it.  It makes for a good atmosphere and it is much more likely that they will come and have a look at our stuff and let us know what they think.

The other reason is these conferences can be in some pretty cool places.  The sorts of towns you might never come across.

The ECROFI (European Current Research On Fluid Inclusions) conference this year was held in Leoben, Austria, hosted by the University of Leoben.  A flight to Vienna followed by a wonderful train ride through some spectacular low mountain scenery lands you in a beautiful small town with nearly a 1000 years of history.  

Leoben is an iron mining town and known as the gateway to the Styrian iron road.  The main square, 'Hauptplatz', is surrounded by lovely baroque facade buildings with a beautiful 16th century church and an intriguing restaurant, Arkadenhof Schwarzer Adler, (there since 1550 I think?) serving all manner of Austrian delectables - mainly schnitzel of various varieties and shapes.  There are also many delightful cafes, although why nearly all of them displayed inch thick  menus of bizarre icecream sundae concotions featuring such oddities as spaghetti and pistacio sundae will remain a mystery.

Fluid inclusion geologists are a great bunch, my Dad seems to think their upbeat relaxed outlook is because they always manage to find remote exotic locations to perform their research.  It's hard to argue with that, the sterile lighting of most labs is not conducive to a cheery demeanor.  However, I wonder if it could it be the geologists relationship with good beer which was served everday of the conference at 4:30pm courtesy of the conferences main sponsor The local Gosser Brewery....delicious and refreshing it was to.

Nearly all of the conferees already have one or two of our stages, either the THMSG600 (arguably the most successful geology stage of all time), MDSG600 (motorized geology stage) or high temperature TS1500, but we had a couple of interesting new products to showcase.

The CAP500 stage has been developed in collaboration with Prof Jean Dubessy at the University of Nancy and Prof I-Ming Chou at USGS in order to study synthetic fluid inclusions in capillaries relative to temperature and pressure.





The TS1400XY developed with Prof Bob Bodnar's group at Virginia Tech to investigate high temperature melt inclusions and quench cooling.  (You can read an earlier blog post on this here.)

The next meeting of the fluid inclusion geologists is PACROFI and is hosted by The University of Windsor in Canada.






Many thanks to Ronald Bakker and the organizing comittee at ECROFI for all your help and giving us the opportunity to show off our equipment.

Posted by Vince Kamp

Could the TS1400XY have helped stop the European air-travel chaos?

Rosario Esposito of the Bodnar Group at VTU using the Linkam TS1400XY to study silicate melt inclusions

The world renowned Bodnar group at Virginia Tech University have recently been carrying out some high profile fluid research studies using our Linkam TS14000XY Stage.

The research group used this stage to compile various studies on volcanic melt inclusions, which related to the properties, distribution and the role of volcanic fluids in and on the earth. One of the major aims being to gain a better understanding as to how volcanoes erupt.

The studies showed that the content of the liquid magma below the surface of the volcano is of paramount importance as it determines the energy of the volcanic eruption. It was shown that magmas with high levels of volatile gases tend to produce explosive eruptions like the ones in Iceland, spewing hundreds of thousands of tonnes of C02 into the atmosphere and causing air travel chaos. On the other hand magmas with lower volatile content produce relatively placid lava flows like those in Hawaii. Information of this kind is of vital importance in predicting the style and severity of future eruptions, which will enable experts to have an increase in risk assessment of active volcanoes.

Many thanks to Professor Bob Bodnar and all of his team at Virginia Tech for sharing their application with us. Hopefully this study will help us gain a better understanding of one of our planets greatest and most powerful forces of nature…   

Posted by Ricky Patel

Hot Rocks and Cool Fluids at PACROFI 2010


Fluid inclusion geologists are a pretty cool bunch of scientists.  I can't quite put my finger on what separates them from many other scientists we come into contact with.  The research is highly complex and yet they just seem a little more laid back and easy going - noted by the high proportion of sandal and short wearing attendees.


Maybe it has something to do with spending a lot of time outside gathering samples in exotic locations or maybe they just know something we don't.

What I do know is that we had a great time at the recent PACROFI (Pan-American Current Research On Fluid Inclusions) conference hosted at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.  Not only because Fluid inc researchers are a great bunch of people to be around, but because we had the chance to show off our new TS1400XY stage.....ok, it didn't hurt being a couple of blocks from the strip either.

Prof. Bob Bodnar of Virginia Tech GeoSciences, has had one of our prototypes for a few months and he was on hand with his colleague Dr. Rosario Esposito to show off some nice melt inclusion pics they had taken using the high speed quench cooling feature.

Prof. Jean Cline and Dr. Adam Simon, PACROFI hosts and organisers, recently received their new TS1400XY and though they had some initial issues with imaging at temperatures above 1200C, this has now been sorted out and we hope to hear some good reviews pretty soon.

It was also great to meet up with Dr. Jim Reynolds, legendary fluid inclusionist and inventor of the USGS Fluid Inc stage, who also had some nice compliments for our TS1400XY stage.  The Fluid Inc stage was a major competitor to our THMSG600 stage and to receive a compliment from a former competitor is high praise indeed.

Many thanks to Jean and Adam for hosting a fantastic show and allowing us to exhibit our hotstage.  Why all conferences don't end with a poster session lubricated with something like 15 different types of beer is a mystery to me.

Also thanks to Jeff McGinn and Sam Cortes of McCrone Microscopes and Accessories  fame - our preferred U.S distributor, for setting up the booth, shipping out their demo TS1400XY and Imaging Station and sorting out the logistics.  Hope you guys have some better luck at the tables next time!
Not that I would ever advocate gambling of course.